Christians tweet from the heart, atheists from the head, according to a new study.
The study conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign tapped Twitter as a research tool and compared the messages of Christians and atheists.
The conclusion: When they are limited to 140 characters or less, these researchers say, believers are happier than their counterparts.
Two doctoral students in social psychology and an adviser analyzed the casual language of nearly 2 million tweets from more than 16,000 active users to come up with their findings, which were published in Social Psychological and Personality Science.
The team identified subjects by finding Twitter users who followed the feeds of five prominent public figures. In the case of Christians, those select five were Pope Benedict XVI, Joel Osteen, Rick Warren, conservative political commentator Dinesh D'Souza and Joyce Meyer, an evangelical author and speaker.
In the case of atheists, the five followed feeds included Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Monica Salcedo and Michael Shermer – the latter two respectively being a self-described "fiercely outspoken atheist" blogger, and a science writer who founded The Skeptics Society.
With the help of a text analysis program, the researchers found that Christians tweet with higher frequency words reflecting positive emotions, social relationships and an intuitive style of thinking – the sort that's gut-driven.
This isn't to say that atheists don't use these words, too, but they out-tweet Christians when it comes to analytic words and words associated with negative emotions.
Christians, they found, are more likely to use words like "love," "happy" and "great"; "family," "friend" and "team."
Atheists win when it comes to using words like "bad," "wrong," and "awful" or "think," "reason" and "question," said Ryan Ritter, one of the students behind the study.
While not perfect – for example, this sort of word examination can't account for sarcasm – word choices, Ritter and his colleagues argue, reflect something about a person's mindset.
An analytical thinker (atheist) is more likely to be skeptical or critical, for example, whereas an intuitive thinker (Christian) is guided by emotion and certainty.
Based on previous studies cited by these researchers, analytical thinking may "diminish the capacity for optimism and positive self-illusions that typify good mental health."
Likewise, mentions of social connections, which they say are often provided in a "tight-knit moral community," suggest stronger relationships among Christian tweeters and are, they add, often an indicator of happiness.
The takeaway, Ritter wrote in an e-mail, is "not that religion is associated with more happiness, per se, but why?"
"If we can understand the factors that facilitate happiness (e.g., increased social support), ideally we can use these insights to increase well-being for believers and nonbelievers alike," Ritter said.
But the Twitter study doesn't fly with everyone.
After reading an article about the study on Pacific Standard magazine's website, Richard Wade, an advice columnist for the blog Friendly Atheist, called it "useless and misleading" and based on "sloppy research."
He wrote, "The take away for most lay people is 'Atheists are unhappy people.' ... How do you quantify 'happiness'? How do you quantify 'analytical thinking'?"
"Even in their acknowledgments about the possible biases in their study, the authors still use absurd and meaningless terms like 'militant atheist,'" he added. "This study suffers from the same negative stereotypes about atheists that most of society has, and it has simply reinforced that prejudice with more muddled thinking."
Ritter, who happens to describe himself as a happy atheist, said in hindsight he wishes they hadn't used the word "militant" and that no ill will was intended. They simply wanted to describe those who have "extremely negative attitudes" when it comes to religion.
"I am a friend of the atheists! My response to Richard would be that he should apply the 'principle of charity' when interpreting other's research (i.e., that it's possible we're NOT incompetent," he wrote in an e-mail.
"This is not an assumption; this is the pattern we observed in the data."